Also known as Epiandrosterone, or 3β-androsterone, or as 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one or 5α-androstan-3β-ol-17-one, is a steroid hormone with weak androgenic activity. It is a natural metabolite of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) via the 5α-reductase enzyme.
A bioactive compound in “Stinging Nettle” (Urtica dioica) used in certain bodybuilding/testosterone-boosting supplements. In-vitro research has shown it can bind tightly to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), so theoretically, it has the potential to increase bioavailable (free) testosterone.
Also known as 3,5-T2 or T2. Like 3,3′-diiodo-l-thyronine, it’s a breakdown metabolite of the active thyroid hormone, T3. Animal data suggests it can reduce body fat accumulation by reducing oxidative stress and altering hepatic (liver) fat metabolism – without inducing thyrotoxicity. This is why it’s included in several weight loss supplements.
3,7-Dihydro-3, 7-Dimethyl-1H-Purine-2, 6-Dione
Known also as Theobromine.
Theobromine and caffeine are related alkaloids, theobromine is weaker in both its inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and its antagonism of adenosine receptors. Therefore, theobromine has a lesser impact on the human central nervous system than caffeine. Theobromine has also been identified as one of the compounds contributing to chocolate’s reputed role as an aphrodisiac. Theobromine may also play a role in improving mood.
An amino acid isolated from fenugreek seeds. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine exhibits lipid-lowering and antidiabetic activity in animal feeding experiments. Early experiments on humans also indicated it could boost post-exercise glycogen resynthesis
A steroid metabolite and a derivative of DHEA, there’s speculation that 5-AT might have a cortisol-suppressing effect. Clinical data validating this theory is sparse, although an abstract presented in 1997 seems to validate this conclusion (Norbiato, et al., In Vitro Immunomodulatory Effects of Delta 5-Androstene-3b,7b,17b Triol (AET) in Hypercortisolemic Patients (Las Vegas, NV: Conference on Cortisol and Anti-Cortisols, 1997).
5-HTP is the intermediate metabolite in the serotonin pathway. The amino acid L-tryptophan converts into 5-HTP and then 5-HTP converts directly into the important neurotransmitter serotonin. Serotonin is a key factor in determining sleep, appetite, mood, and other body functions including pain control. 5-HTP is basically the direct pre-cursor to serotonin. Some research suggests that oral 5-HTP supplementation can also increase other neurotransmitters and brain chemicals like dopamine, melatonin, and beta-endorphin. 5-HTP is very well absorbed orally and easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. According to several studies including one published in the Alternative Medicine Review in 1998, 5-HTP can effectively increase central nervous system production of serotonin. It can be taken with food without any competitive absorption problems. The 5-HTP that is found in supplements today is extracted from the seeds of the African plant, griffonia simplicifolia.
7 Keto DHEA
7-Keto-DHEA is an acetylated form of a DHEA metabolite (7-oxo-DHEA) used in a number of weight loss supplements. Unlike DHEA, it cannot be converted to androgens (i.e., testosterone) or estrogens.
Several studies in humans indicate that 7-Keto-DHEA can increase RMR and enhance weight/fat loss when taken in conjunction with a structured diet and exercise program. Studies in rats have shown 7-keto may work by increasing levels of thermogenic enzymes. It may also help reduce cortisol (stress hormone) levels.
Also known as 3-acetyl-7-keto-DHEA and 3-acetyl-7-oxo-dehydroepiandosterone
A metabolite of yohimbine also used in fat loss supplements, as it has a longer half-life (6 – 8 hours vs. 1 – 2 hours) than yohimbine itself
Arginine alpha-ketoglutarate is two arginine molecules attached to one alpha-ketoglutarate molecule. This formulation may improve arginine absorption, thereby further increasing nitric oxide (NO) production
Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is the acetylated ester derivative of the amino acid L-carnitine. In simple terms, a specific combination of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen molecules are added to L-carnitine creating ALC. It has been shown in research studies to have protective effects on the brain and helps to release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It may also act as a potent anti-oxidant in the brain. Researchers believe that ALC improves cognition by enhancing the activity of acetylcholine and/or improving neuronal metabolism. It has been shown to have some anti-catabolic effects as well by preventing the decrease in plasma testosterone levels after chronic exercise stress.
Agmatine Sulfate: Agmatine is a metabolite of the amino acid arginine with neuroprotective and neuromodulating effects.
A more powerful version of anti-catabolic amino acid glutamine which prevents muscle breakdown under stress.
Short for L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, it is an acetylcholine precursor derived from soy. This is a new supplement that has been shown in preliminary research to boost GH (growth hormone) levels and increase neurological function. One plus is that smaller amounts seem to boost GH levels (150-400 mg) which makes it more cost effective. Boosting GH levels can have major implications in muscle building and promoting optimal recovery from hard workouts, especially in individuals over the age of 40. Since Alpha-GPC can boost endogenous levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, it can also help enhance mental focus and mental clarity—two good things to have during a workout! Yet another affect of Alpha-GPC is that it is a potent choline donor. The choline provided then serves as the precursor for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) from other lipid-based compounds. This can help protect cell membranes from damage.
Alpha Lipoic Acid
Also known as lipoic and thioctic acid, this sulfur-containing antioxidant is produced naturally by the body, and can be found in foods such as liver, brewer’s yeast, and potatoes. Alpha lipoic acid is a unique and powerful antioxidant, insulin mimicker, and plays a key role in producing cellular energy. It is actually prescribed in parts of Europe for blood sugar disorders! In the metabolic cycle, Alpha Lipoic Acid acts as a coenzyme in the production of energy by converting carbohydrates into energy (ATP). In a series of steps, carbohydrates are broken down into sugars, which results in pyruvic acid, which in turn breaks down to an enzyme complex that contains alpha lipoic acid. The end result is more energy. This action is considerably important for people who exercise, since higher levels of energy may be desired, and often required. These research discoveries conclude that Alpha Lipoic Acid is a necessary component of the energy transport reactions that allow for glucose to be metabolized into energy (ATP). Alpha Lipoic Acid can also help your fitness efforts by normalizing blood-sugar levels, while metabolizing sugar into energy and increasing energy levels. It can help regulate blood sugar levels and thus is sometimes called an “Insulin-mimetic compound”. A good dose is 100 mg taken 3 times daily with meals.
Amino acids – The building blocks from which proteins are made. Dietary amino acids are classified as essential or non-essential. Essential amino acids (histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine) cannot be manufactured by the body and must be supplied in the diet or ill-health results. The non-essential amino acids are also essential for health, but can be synthesized in the body from the essential amino acids. Arginine, ornithine, cysteine, cystine, taurine and tyrosine are classified as non-essential amino acids but may be essential for individuals with certain diseases or nutritional concerns. A suboptimal intake of the essential amino acids increases the body’s need for the non-essential amino acids.
This is a patented combination of protein enzymes (derived from a fungus) that helps assimilate protein and specifically helps cleave branch chain amino acids. By creating peptides, aminogen helps digest proteins better. This may alleviate some of the stomach discomfort and gas associated with a high protein intake
Anacyclus Pyrethrum – is a herbal aphrodisiac from Ayurvedic medicine, in which a mixture of its roots is sometimes referred to as Akarhara. It is currently being investigated for its benefits on male fertility and testosterone levels. It is currently in the preliminary stages of research, but appears to exert pro-aphrodisiac effects and increase testosterone in animal models that are otherwise normal functioning and healthy.
Androgen – This term refers to the male sex hormones (testosterone, androsterone) or any agent that encourages the development of male sex characteristics.
This is being marketed as an Armoatase Inhibitor (AI) and cortisol inhibitor. It’s a metabolite of 7-Keto DHEA.
Known as 11-OXO, 11-Sterone, 11-Test
Nomenclature: Adrenosterone (Androst-4-ene-3,11,17-trione
Adrenosterone is a steroid hormone with weak androgenic effect first isolated in 1936 from the adrenal cortex. Adrenosterone occurs in trace amounts in humans as well as most mammals and in larger amounts in fish, where it is a precursor to the primary androgen, 11-ketotestosterone. Adrenosterone has shown to be converted into 11-ketotestosterone in humans, which contributes to adrenosterone’s androgenic effects. Adrenosterone’s main action is to lower cortisol levels.
Androstenedione – A weak androgenic steroid secreted by the adrenal cortex, testes, and ovary. In normal males less than 5% of their testosterone comes from the conversion of adrenal androstenedione. Androstenedione is converted to testosterone by the enzyme 17-ketoreductase. Androstenedione and testosterone are converted to estrone and estradiol in peripheral tissues (primarily in adipose tissue but also in muscle, kidney, liver and the hypothalamus) by aromatase. The conversion of androstenedione and testosterone accounts for more than 75% of the estrogens in the plasma of normal men. The rest is synthesized in the testes. Gonadotropin secretion may be partially controlled by estrogen formation in the hypothalamus.
Antioxidants – Nutrients that combat ever-present free radicals created through oxidation in the body. Free radicals are believed to contribute to a number of health problems.
A root or berry extract used in Indian Ayuverdic medicine. An adaptogen, immune booster and thyroid stimulant.
AstraGin is a proprietary formulation consisting of ginsenosides extracted from Panax notoginseng and alcohol fraction from Astragalus membranaceous. AstraGin™ has been demonstrated in vitro, in vivo, and in human to significantly promote and improve absorption of amino acids, glucose, and vitamins. AstraGin™ increases the absorption of amino acids, glucose, and vitamins through the regulation and paralleled alteration on both the protein and mRNA expression levels of the Na+/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) gene.
ATP – Adenosine Triphosphate – a compound consisting of the nucleotide adenosine attached through its ribose group to three phosphoric acid molecules. It serves to store energy in muscles which is released when it is hydrolyzed to adenosine diphosphate.
Avena sativa (green oats extract) has been used for decades to improve sexual function and as a natural aphrodisiac. It is also used to increase testosterone production.
Basella Alba – The traditional mixture of Basella Alba and Hibiscus Macranthus appears to be effective at increasing testosterone both in vitro and in vivo when Basella is injected at 36mg/kg bodyweight (72mg/kg bodyweight Hibiscus) in rats; no human studies currently
BCAA Branched Chain Amino Acids
These include the essential amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. They are very popular among athletes and there is some research validating their use. Numerous research studies have shown these 3 key amino acids are extremely important to consume, especially when you are dieting and exercising (and according to one study, BCAA’s are even more important when exercising in the heat). During exercise, your body uses a mix of glucose, fats, and even protein as a fuel source. When you diet and your carbohydrate intake is lower than normal, the percentage of protein your body uses for fuel (specifically Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine) dramatically increases. The body will pull those needed amino acids from the continuously circulating pool of amino acids in your bloodstream. And if not replenished from an outside source, i.e. specific amino acid ingestion in the form of BCAA’s, your body will again, breakdown other areas of your body in order to supply this pool. Studies have shown that subjects who consume an effective dose of BCAA’s while dieting have greater levels of lean muscle mass retention than controls that ingest a placebo (and typically LOSE muscle during the same dieting period). Results from one study concluded that the subjects consuming the high protein diet including branch chain amino acid supplements lost the greatest amount of bodyfat. Even more compelling is that the group supplementing with branch chain amino acids lost the greatest amount of fat from the abdominal and thigh regions, two areas of concern for many men and women in regards to fat loss. It is important to take gram doses of each of the BCAA’s before, during, and after exercise to maximize a workout program.
A non-protein amino acid that’s a precursor to carnosine (beta-alanyl-l-histidine). Carnosine is a dipeptide that’s highly concentrated in muscle tissue. It has antioxidant effects, and acts to buffer hydrogen ions produced during exercise, thus delaying muscle fatigue.
Also known as trimethylglycine. A naturally-occurring nutrient/metabolite with therapeutic applications. Supplemental betaine can help reduce homocysteine (a risk factor for cardiovascular disease) and treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Betaine HCl is also a source of hydrochloric acid, and can be used to compensate for decreased production by the stomach (hypochlorhydria).
Beta-carotene – A nutrient that is converted to Vitamin A by the body when needed. Contains antioxidant properties.
Beta Ecdysterone (20 Hyrdoxyecdysone)
An herb that comes from various plants including rhaponticum, luzae, and cyanotis vaga. It can not only enhance protein absorption but it can also enhance nitrogen retention and protein synthesis possibly due to hormone modification. A good dose is 40 mg of active beta-ecdysterone (after standardization) 2-3 times daily preferably with a protein containing meal.
Bioperine – A patented thermogenic nutrient; increases the body’s efficiency in the uptake of nutrients.
Biotin (Vitamin B) – Essential for metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates.
This herb has been shown to be safe and effective in helping to relive hot flashes associated with menopause. The triterpene glycosides found in this herb seem to be the key ingredient for its effects. Several studies show a clear reduction in menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, and headaches and psychological parameters like depression, sleep disturbances, and irritability following 1-2 months of treatment. In a few cases, subjects have been able to discontinue hormone replacement therapy while taking the black cohosh extract.
A source of gamma linolenic acid (GLA) used in supplements. Borage oil has a higher percentage of GLA than evening primrose oil (23% – 24%).
Boron – A mineral that may play a role in maintaining strong bones, affecting calcium and magnesium metabolism and proper membrane function.
Bulbine Natalensis is an herb that’s been recently studied for use as a libido enhancer, testosterone booster, estrogen reducer and as an herbal remedy for erectile dysfunction.
A rodent study was performed by the Centre for Phytomedicine Research, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa. Rodents receiving Bulbine Natalensis had a serum testosterone level equal to 347% of the control group; in that same group, estrogen was 35% lower.
Caffeine (chemically a methylxanthine) is one of the best (if not THE best) researched ergogenic aids available today. Caffeine has been shown in several studies to promote fat oxidation and both weight and fat loss in exercising individuals. Many studies repeatedly show that caffeine enhances both short term and long term endurance performance. Caffeine seems to delay fatigue (prolongs time to exhaustion) so aerobic workouts can go on longer and stronger. It has been shown to be effective in increasing speed in simulated race conditions and in a regular laboratory setting. One study published in the International Journal of Sports Medicine in 1998 states “caffeine ingestion can be an effective ergogenic aid for short term, supramaximal running performance.” Even though there are far less studies with caffeine and resistance training (weight lifting), some evidence does suggest that caffeine can increase power generated in repeated muscle contractions and enhance endurance at submaximal tension. More power = more reps hence better muscle gains, capish! Caffeine works through several mechanisms of action including promoting the release of stored fat to be used as energy, more release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (thereby leading to greater muscle contraction including greater force production by each motor unit), antagonism of the adenosine receptors mainly in the central nervous system, inhibition of phosphodiesterases leading to an increase level of cyclic AMP in muscle tissue (creating a more favorable intracellular environment in active muscle), and sparing glycogen (carbohydrate stores in muscle cells and the liver) because of an increased rate of fat oxidation (which could explain why caffeine delays time to exhaustion during aerobic exercise). Caffeine has some diuretic properties that can aid in decreasing water retention in the body although it does not seem to act as a diuretic during exercise. Anyway, it is important to consume plenty of water when taking in caffeine. Another thing to look out for is caffeine’s effects on blood sugar. Although not clear from the research, it may decrease insulin sensitivity so diabetics need to be careful.
Calcium – A mineral that helps build and maintain strong bones and teeth, regulate heartbeat and muscle contractions, and ensure proper blood clotting. Adequate intake can help prevent or minimize osteoporosis.
Calories – Measurement of the potential of food to supply energy. Carbohydrates – The body’s principal source of energy. Simple carbohydrates come from sugars; complex carbohydrates come from starches and fiber. The body converts them to glucose, which is used to energize cells.
Casein is also a milk derived protein and comes in various forms including calcium caseinate, sodium caseinate, and micellar casein. Casein has a reputation for being the “anti-catabolic” protein and has some advantages over whey. First, casein is absorbed more slowly and can provide a sustained release of amino acids into the blood stream over a longer period of time. It forms a gel in the stomach and the amino acids are extracted more slowly and may be better absorbed over the long run. There are a few good studies that confirm the benefits of casein over whey including the famous Boire study which showed casein’s powerful ability to reduce muscle breakdown and increase protein synthesis and a more recent study in police officers which showed that the special casein group lost more body fat, gained more lean muscle mass, and had greater strength increases than the whey protein group. The authors of the study attributed it to the anti-catabolic effects of the peptides (chains of amino acids) found naturally in casein. Peptides are absorbed better than amino acids due to peptide transport systems in the gut.
Carnitine – An amino acid essential for the breakdown of fat into energy. Carnitine may improve the utilization of fats for energy and can be beneficial in conditions associated with impaired fat breakdown and energy production. Carnitine may be beneficial in heart disease, enhancing physical performance, Alzhiemers disease, diabetes, liver disease, and protection against drug toxicity.
Cytidine 5-diphosphocholine; also known as “citicoline”. A bioavailable source of choline and precursor to the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (cell membrane phospholipid)and acetylcholine (neurotransmitter). Like alpha-glycerophosphocholine, CDP-choline has neuroprotective and cognitive effects, with potential therapeutic applications for stroke, senile dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.
Chlorophytum borivilianum (Safed Musli) is a Rasayana herb from Indian Medicine supposedly used as an aphrodisiac and adaptogen. Mostly rat studies currently, but it appears to be an effective erectogenic agent and aphrodisiac
Chocamine is a proprietary cocoa extract produced by RFI Ingredients. It contains methylxanthines (caffeine and related compounds such as theobromine), neurotransmitter-related biogenic amines and flavonoid antioxidants. Chocamine is used in several fat-burning and workout-boosters as a stimulant; and is also sold in bulk powder form.
Usually taken with Glucosamine for joint health. Many studies have shown this combination to be effective for joint support. It may help support proper inflammatory function. Good dosages range from 800-1200 mg daily using the depolymerized version which may be slightly better absorbed.
Cholesterol – Substance manufactured by the liver and other organs and consumed via animal fat. High-fat diets increase the amount made. It is believed that high levels lead to collection of cholesterol in the arteries, possibly leading to serious health risks.
Choline – A nutrient that helps prevent the accumulation of fat in the liver; aids in the detoxification of metabolic wastes and toxins.
Chromium – Mineral important in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats; helps build lean muscle tissue and regulate blood sugar levels.
a.k.a. “Veld Grape” – a medicinal plant native to Africa, India, and other parts of Asia. Cissus has traditionally been used to treat a variety of ailments such as bone fractures, ulcers, wounds, indigestion and asthma. Animal studies have shown Cissus extracts may have gastroprotective effects, contribute to bone health, and have antioxidant/antimicrobial activities.
Cissus quadrangularis has gained popularity in bodybuilding circles as an analgesic and palliative for weight lifting injuries. It has also been touted as a weight loss agent on the strength of two manufacturer-supported studies (Lipids Health Dis. 2007 Feb 4;6:4 and Lipids Health Dis. 2006 Sep 2;5:24)
Citrulline malate is a citrulline salt often found in NO (nitric oxide) boosters and other pre-workout supplements. Citrulline malate can serve as a source of arginine for NO production, and promote aerobic energy production in exercising muscle. There is also some experimental evidence that it can promote resistance to muscle fatigue.
CLA – (Conjugated linoleic acid) is a naturally occurring nutrient which scientists have discovered exerts a positive effect on protein and fat metabolism.
Coenzyme Q 10 – Vital to energy production at the cellular level; used for endurance improvement. Supplementation may decrease fatigue, muscle weakness and obesity. Also recognized for its strong antioxidant properties.
Although not a stimulant ingredient, it is showing up in many thermogenic weight loss formulas. Coleus Forshohlii (active ingredient Forskolin) is a “power” herb which increases the amount of cyclic AMP (adenosine monophosphate) in cells by activating an enzyme called adenylate cyclase. Why is it important to increase cAMP levels? Well, there are several benefits of this to athletes including relaxation of the arteries and smooth muscles, lowering blood pressure, enhanced insulin secretion (which can help drive carbohydrates and protein into muscle cells for energy and recovery), increased thyroid hormone function (which can help enhance metabolic rate), and significantly increase lipolysis (fat burning). Forskolin also seems to benefit other cellular enzymes as well. Forskolin has been shown to not only enhance lipolysis but it may also inhibit fat storage from occurring. It is actually patented under US patent 5,804,596 by the Sabinsa corporation for stimulating lean body mass (the more lean muscle mass you have, the more calories you will burn at rest, hence more fat loss!). A good dose is 100 mg coleus forskohlii standardized to 20% forskolin. Taking 25-60 mg of forskolin daily in divided doses may be beneficial.
Copper – Mineral important in the formation of red blood cells; keeps bones, blood vessels, nerves and the immune system healthy.
This unique ingredient containing Lagerstroemia speciosa L. acts as a glucose transport stimulator. Modifications of the activity of glucose transport would cause several physiological effects, such as lowering blood glucose level. Corosolic acid is called phyto-insulin or insulin-like principle because of its ability to aid in blood sugar regulation. It can be a good tool in the management of healthy blood sugar levels. New research even shows it actually helps with weight and body fat loss! Dosages range from 16-48 mg daily with meals.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a compound found naturally in the energy-producing center of the cell known as the mitochondria. CoQ10 levels are reported to decrease with age and to be low in patients with some chronic diseases such as heart conditions, muscular dystrophies, Parkinson’s disease, cancer, diabetes, and HIV/AIDS.
Creatine monohydrate – Maximizes the body’s level of stored creatine phosphate; results in increased peak athletic performance and shortened muscle recovery time.
Creatinol-o-phosphate (COP) is a creatine analog added to certain bodybuilding supplements as it has the potential to a) be converted to creatine; b) act as a source of phosphate to regenerate creatine; and/or c) function as an alternate source of phosphate for the regeneration of ATP. Animal and human studies in the late 1970′s – early 1980′s demonstrated COP has protective effects on the heart, but this has not been followed up on…research is largely dormant.
A polyphenolic compound (“curcuminoid”) found in the spice turmeric. Curcumin has antioxidant activity in-vivo, as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. Curcumin is viewed as a promising compound for the prevention/treatment of various diseases
D-Glucuronolactone regulates the synthesis of glycogen.
It may increase energy levels, reduce sleepiness and improve alertness and reaction time. Austrian researchers found that when used in combination with caffeine and taurine, this substance can positively affect mental performance and mood.
It is one of the main ingredients of chondroitin sulfate and won the trust of some researchers as a useful treatment for arthritis as it may keep joints, ligaments and tendons lubricated.
An herb usually used for its diuretic properties to get rid of excess water weight. The root is used and it can be especially beneficial before a contest or photo shoot
DHA (docosahexaenoic acid)
This component of fish oil is the primary structural fatty acid in the brain and may help boost brain signals to other parts of your nervous system according to some research.
DHEA –Dehydroepiandrosterone – is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland. Primary function is to produce estrogen and testosterone.
Dietary fiber – Consists of both soluble (dissolves in water) and insoluble (does not dissolve in water) fiber. Diets high in dietary fiber and low in fat may have a protective effect against many chronic illnesses, including heart disease and some cancers, and may reduce LDL (“bad”) cholesterol.
This is a stable indole found in cruciferous vegetables which promotes a beneficial estrogen metabolism in men. It has many studies showing its beneficial effects. It helps get rid of the “bad” excess and “unneeded” estrogen through a benign pathway (C-2 pathway). It can positively alter the testosterone to estrogen ratio and may even support prostate health
EFA’s Essential Fatty Acids
EFA’s may have many benefits including improved metabolism, improve insulin action, increased growth hormone secretion, improved testosterone production, improved blood pressure, liver support and protection (especially with borage oil and evening primrose oil due to their GLA content), improved condition of hair and nails, improved cholesterol profile, decreased inflammation response, improved nerve function, enhanced immune function, improved energy production of cells, and increased nitrogen retention. Low fat diets have been continuously shown to lower testosterone levels. There are two types of EFAs, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Linoleic acid is included in the category known as omega-6 fatty acids, while linolenic acid—specifically, alpha linolenic acid—is an omega-3 fatty acid. Another omega-6 fatty acid, gamma linoleic acid (GLA), is also important for health and athletic performance. GLA has actually been shown to lower 5-alpha reductase activity which can lower the conversion of excess testosterone to DHT—a great added benefit! There’s a class of “hormone like substances” called prostaglandins in the human body. Prostaglandins are derived from essential fatty acids. There are three classes, or series, of prostaglandins. Series 1 prostaglandins promote performance, series 2 prostaglandins disrupt performance, and series 3 prostaglandins block the formation of series 2 prostaglandins. Obviously, you’d just want to boost series 1 and series 3 prostaglandins. These prostaglandins can have anabolic effects in the body. Eating plenty of essential fatty acids, especially monounsaturated fats, can have a positive impact on testosterone levels. These include natural peanut butter, hemp seed oil, flax seed oil, olive oil, and canola oil. Eating fish including salmon regularly can also help. One study published in the Journal of Nutrition in 1990 showed that fish oil (containing EPA and DHA) positively impacted testosterone synthesis. Taking 5-10 grams daily of EFA’s can be beneficial.
Egg Albumin Protein
Protein that is derived from the whites of eggs.
EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid)
Fish oil which has been shown to support cardiovascular health, neurological function, and testosterone synthesis.
Ephedrine –A sympathetic nerve stimulant resembling adrenaline, its effect on the unstriped muscular fibres is remarkable. It acts promptly in relieving swellings of the mucous membrane. It has valuable antispasmodic properties, acts on the air passages and is of benefit in asthma and hay fever; it is also employed for rheumatism; a 5 to 10 per cent solution has mydriatic properties, prophylactically used for low blood pressure in influenza, pneumonia, etc. Used in tablet form for oral or hypodermic administration and in ampuls for hypodermic, intramuscular and intravenous use. It can advantageously be used in solution with liquid paraffin, either alone or in conjunction with methol camphor and oil of thyme. Dose, 1/2 to 1 grain. Synonyms include Ephedra, and Ma Huang.
Also known as “Longjack” and “Tongkat Ali.” An Asian herbal aphrodisiac often found in testosterone-boosting supplements and/or supps used to enhance libido.
One of the principle, bioactive alkaloids of Evodia rutaecarpa. Like capsaicin, evodiamine is a vanilloid receptor agonist, with thermogenic and (potential) anti-obesity effects. Evodiamine may also have therapeutic potential, due to its anti-tumor and analgesic effects.
Evodiamine is often added to fat burners (purified or as a standardized extract of Evodia) to promote thermogenesis. It’s alleged to invoke a “shivering” response, although this is strictly anecdotal.
A Nigerian shrub used in traditional medicine as an aphrodisiac and treatment for erectile dysfunction. An extract of the stems was found to increase serum testosterone and sexual activity in rats
Fats – Provide essential fatty acids that cannot be produced by the body. They transport fat-soluble vitamins and regulate blood cholesterol levels. Provide energy when the body’s carbohydrate level is depleted. Provide protection to vital organs. While fats are essential to the body, many people consume much more than necessary to remain healthy.
Fenugreek seeds contain a high proportion (40%) of a soluble fiber known as mucilage. This fiber forms a gelatinous structure (similar to guar gum) which may have effects on slowing the digestion and absorption of food from the intestine. Dietary fiber has been shown in many clinical studies to help control blood sugar and insulin levels (and even cause weight loss to occur). Some studies indicate a beneficial effect of fenugreek in reducing blood glucose levels and improving glucose tolerance in patients with diabetes. In terms of weight control, the soluble fiber in fenugreek seeds can reduce dietary fat absorption by binding to fatty acids as well as create a sensation of “fullness” and reduced appetite—always a good thing when trying to control blood sugar levels! There is a very interesting amino acid that is extracted from fenugreek seeds called 4-hydroxyisoleucine. This ingredient may stimulate insulin secretion (direct beta-cell stimulation) and help control blood sugar levels. A good dose is 300-500 mg daily of 4-hydroxyisoleucine preferably after a workout with carbohydrates and creatine.
During the last 20 years, research has implicated dietary fiber as important in various aspects of gastrointestinal function and positive support in disease states. Dietary fiber is defined as “plant polysaccharides and lignin which are resistant to hydrolysis by the digestive enzymes in man.” Examples include cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, lignin, gums, carrageenan, and mucilages. Insoluble fibers include lignin, cellulose, and some hemicellulose. Soluble fibers include pectin, gum, mucilages and some hemicellulose. Guar gum has also been used for weight reduction. Effects of fiber include increased fecal bulk, decreased luminal pressure, preventing colon cancer, delayed gastric emptying, reduced glucose absorption (lowers glycemic index of foods), and anti-toxic effects.
Folic acid – Vitamin important in the synthesis of DNA, tissue growth and the production of red blood cells.
Functional food – Food or food ingredient that has been shown to affect specific functions or systems in the body. Functional foods play an important role in disease prevention.
GABA stands for gamma-aminobutyric acid, an inhibitory neurotransmitter derived from glutamate (an amino acid and excitatory neurotransmitter). When taken in supplemental form, GABA has a mild sedative effect that can aid relaxation and sleep. Supplemental GABA may also stimulate resting growth hormone production.
Gamma-linolenic acid – Nutrient that increases the rate at which the body burns fat for energy; anti-inflammatory properties and other healthful benefits.
Ginseng – An herb (Korean – Panax Ginseng) (Siberian – Eleutherococcus senticosus) (American – panax quinqefolium),. The most costly root, ginseng is a low-growing, shade-loving perennial herb of the Araliaceae family. It is cultivated in China, Japan, Korea and Russia and can be taken in capsule form or as a tea. The United States can also cultivate this root.
Glucosamine – Glucosamine sulfate and n-acetyl glucosamine occur widely in the exoskeleton of arthropods and crustaceans as their biopolymer, chitin. Glucosamine is also a basic constituent of cartilage. Glucosamine is a natural sugar produced by the body and found in certain foods. Glucosamine stimulates the production of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans, two essential building blocks of cartilage. In most cases, the joints produce sufficient Glucosamine to keep the cartilage in good repair, but if they fail to do so, it dries out, degenerates, cracks, and may even completely wear away. Left unprotected, the joints then become swollen, stiff, inflamed, tender, and painful–the condition known as osteoarthritis. Advocates believe that by taking artificially synthesized Glucosamine sulfate supplements, osteoarthritis sufferers can “jump start” the natural production of Glucosamine by their own bodies.
Glutamine – A non-essential amino acid, glutamine is considered to be a brain fuel. Glutamine has been used therapeutically for alcoholism, mild depression and to reduce the craving for sweets. Glutamine is very important in the functioning of the metabolism and muscle maintenance. Glutamine supplementation can help prevent muscle and other tissue breakdown by providing the body with nitrogen and fuel.
Glycerol (also known as glycerin or glycerine) is a colorless, odorless, sweet tasting nutrient. It is technically a trihydroxy alcohol found naturally as the backbone of triglycerides in the body. It is added to protein bars to help make them moist and also to sweeten them. It does not cause any significant blood sugar response when taken as part of protein bar and seems to be eliminated from the body mostly unused. Glycerol is an interesting compound that has been shown to enhance athletic performance and cause “hyperhydration” when consumed with water (above and beyond that with water alone). It seems to help keep the body cooler during exercise. Glycerol does contain 4.32 calories per gram.
Green Tea – An herb (Camellia sinensis). Green tea originates in China, Japan and other parts of Asia. The leaf of the plant is used in creating the extract which is potent and bioflavonoid-rich. This herb is used primarily for its free-radical scavenging capabilities. The key ingredient EGCG, which stands for Epigallocatechin Gallate, protects against digestive and respiratory infections. Historical uses of the tea are reducing high blood pressure, inhibiting pathogenic bacteria that cause food poisoning and blocking the actions of carcinogens, ultraviolet light and metastasis.
Guggulsterone (4,17(20)-pregnadien-3,16-dione) is a plant sterol that’s thought to be the active principle in guggul lipid – the resin of the medicinal plant, Commiphora mukul. In Ayurvedic medicine, guggul lipid is used as a treatment for gout, arthritis, inflammation and obesity. Guggul extracts also have potential lipid-lowering and thyroid stimulating effects
Herbs – Plants containing many nutrients and phytochemicals, providing an array of health benefits. Herbs have been known for centuries, but are now becoming the basics of many modern medicines.
Higenamine (Norcoclaurine) is a molecule derived from a variety of fruits and plants that appears to have anti-asthmatic properties via dilating the bronchial tubes (a mechanism known as Beta(2)adrenergic agonism). This mechanism is also the same one underlying the fat burning potential of Ephedrine, and as such Higenamine is currently being used as a fat burner.
Hydroxycitric acid – Naturally-occurring nutrient with the ability to inhibit the synthesis of carbohydrates into fat; also works as an appetite suppressant. Found in Relìv products under the brand name CitriMax®.
Hydroxypropyl Beta Cyclodextrin
Cyclodextrins are a family of compounds made up of sugar molecules bound together in a ring. Cyclodextrins are produced from starch by means of enzymatic conversion. They are used in food, pharmaceutical, drug delivery, and chemical industries, as well as agriculture and environmental engineering.
This compound is used to facilitate delivery.
Hyaluronic acid is the backbone of cartilage. It is a key component in the fluid surrounding your joints. It provides nutrition to joint cartilage making it invaluable for joint health and comfort.
Inositol – A nutrient that helps prevent the accumulation of fat in the liver; aids in the detoxification of metabolic wastes and toxins.
Insulin – A protein pancreatic hormone that is essential especially for the metabolism of carbohydrates and is used in the treatment and control of diabetes mellitus.
Iodine – A mineral necessary for normal cell metabolism. Required by the thyroid gland in the synthesis and secretion of hormones.
Iron – A mineral essential to the formation of hemoglobin and myoglobin (which carries oxygen in the blood and muscles, respectively). A part of several proteins and enzymes in the body.
Isoflavones – Compounds found in soy which have been shown to significantly reduce serum cholesterol levels — the leading risk factor for heart disease — as well as alleviate menopausal symptoms in women and assist in combating numerous other serious health risks.
Lactobacillus Acidophilus is a bacteria that lives in the small intestine and is generally considered to be beneficial because it produces vitamin K, and lactase. It breaks down food in the intestines and forms several substances that create an unfriendly environment for “bad” bacteria.
Lactobacillus Plantarum This bacteria creates a healthy barrier in your colon to keep dangerous bacteria from penetrating the lining of your intestines and entering your blood stream. It can be a treatment for Irritable Bowel Syndrome, ease Crohns disease and Colitis.
Lactobacillus Salivarius breaks up and melts away hard, crusty old fecal matter packed on the walls of your colon. It is a bowel cleanser which is very active on proteins as well as by products of protein putrefaction. Aids oral health when combined with B Coagulans.
Arginine has been researched quite well and has many beneficial effects especially when it comes to cardiovascular health. Some other research suggests it may help improve exercise performance, support protein synthesis, boost growth hormone levels at higher doses, and even help replenish glycogen (stored carbohydrate) stores post workout. Its main mechanism of action is boosting nitric oxide (NO) production which helps promote its many effects. NO is basically the muscle cells “signaling molecule”. Boosting nitric oxide in muscle tissue can have many anabolic effects including increased nutrient transport and vasodilation (increased blood flow). Arginine boosts nitric oxide by stimulating nitric oxide synthase, the enzyme that makes NO A good time to take arginine is before and after a hard workout and before bed time. Taking three to five grams at these times can be beneficial. Be careful because in some people, gram doses of arginine may cause stomach discomfort.
L-carnitine – A nutrient responsible for the transportation of fats to cells for use in energy production.
Lysine – Essential amino acid. Important for growth, tissue repair, and the production of hormones, enzymes and antibodies. Research indicates that lysine may be useful in the treatment of migraine and herpes simplex. Precursor to carnitine in the body.
Glutamine is a neutral amino acid and is the most abundant amino acid found in human muscle and plasma. In fact, 60% of the free-floating amino acid pool in your skeletal muscle cells is made up of glutamine. Glutamine has come to be known as a “conditionally essential” amino acid because in times of stress (exercise is stress), the body requires more of it to maintain both blood and muscle stores of glutamine. It is derived from wheat molasses for commercial production.
Glutamine has a tremendous amount of benefits to exercising individuals and those looking to increase lean muscle mass and decrease body fat. Supplemental glutamine can help promote cell volumization. This phenomenon is the drawing of water INSIDE muscle cells which can help increase muscle “fullness”, increase protein synthesis (the making of proteins), and decrease proteolysis (the breakdown of protein). In fact, some of the “muscle building” benefits of taking creatine have to do with its ability to enhance cell volumization. Glutamine has also been shown to aid in recovery and recuperation, help boost immune function by being one of the building blocks for the body’s most powerful anti-oxidant, glutathione, possibly cause extra growth hormone release with just a 2 gram oral dosage (it is yet to be determined whether that leads to an ergogenic benefit but it couldn’t hurt), partially determine the rate of protein turnover in muscles, boost anti-inflammatory cell function, and helps increase muscle glycogen deposition through an unknown mechanism. Many of these powerful effects can help increase lean body mass and prevent the breakdown of hard earned muscle.
Magnesium – A mineral aiding many basic functions, including metabolism, heart rhythm, bone growth and the function of nerves and muscles.
Manganese – A mineral playing a vital role in reproduction and energy production; very important in building healthy bones. Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) – Provide twice the energy of carbohydrates; have no significant effect on insulin production. Improve the absorption of amino acids and reduce muscle tissue breakdown.
Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCTs)
Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCTs) are a unique form of dietary fat. Dietary fats are molecules composed of individual carbon atoms linked into chains ranging from 2 to 22 carbon atoms in length. Long Chain Fatty acids (LCTs) ranging from 12 to 18 carbons long are the predominant form of fat in the American diet. MCTs are composed of 6 to 10 carbon links.
MCTs provide about 10% fewer calories than LCTs, about 8.3 calories per gram for versus 9 calories per gram for LCTs. The reduced chain length means MCTs are more rapidly absorbed by the body and more quickly metabolized. The result is that MCTs are very efficiently converted into fuel for immediate use by organs and muscles.
Molybdenum – A mineral required to activate certain enzymes that are necessary for thousands of bodily functions.
Mucuna Pruriens containing L-Dopa
This herb also known as velvet bean contains the very powerful neurotransmitter pre-cursor L-Dopa (L-Dihydroxyphenylalanine). Mucuna Pruriens has been shown to increase mental alertness and improve coordination. But the main reason an exercising individual would consider this herb would be GH release. You see, L-Dopa is a powerful GH releaser and since mucuna pruriens usually contains about 15% L-Dopa, it can have powerful effects in this regard. As mentioned previously, increasing GH levels can have profound effects on lean body mass and fat loss. This would be a great supplement to take along with Alpha GPC before bed time to maximize GH release during sleep. This can allow for better recovery and recuperation as well as stimulating more muscle growth. This herb may also have some blood sugar regulating properties, but this is not clear yet from the research.
May improve focus and alertness.
Niacin (Vitamin B3) – Crucial for conversion of food into energy; helps maintain normal functioning of the skin, nerves and digestive system.
Octacosanol – A naturally derived wheat germ oil concentrate which has been clinically proven to increase oxygen utilization when exercising.
Oxytropus Falcate is a fairly odd herb, with a large degree of renown in Tibetan medicine (where it is referred to as the King of Herbs) yet highly underresearched; its composition appeared to be well characterized, although not quantified, but currently there is a single rat study assessing topical pain-killing and anti-inflammatory effects and no human studies.
PABA – Functions in the breakdown and use of proteins in the formation of blood cells.
Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5) – Essential in metabolizing food; aids in the synthesis of various body chemicals, such as hormones and cholesterol.
Phosphatidylserine (abbreviated Ptd-L-Ser or PS) is a phospholipid component, usually kept on the cytosolic part of cell membranes by an enzyme called flippase. When a cell undergoes apoptotic cell death, phosphatidylserine is no longer restricted to the cytosolic part of the membrane, but becomes exposed on the surface of the cell.
Phosphatidylserine has been demonstrated to speed up recovery, prevent muscle soreness, improve well-being, and might possess ergogenic properties in athletes involved in cycling, weight training and endurance running.
Soy-PS (soy derived phosphatidylserine) has been reported to be an effective supplement for combating exercise-induced stress by blunting the exercise-induced increase in cortisol levels. PS supplementation promotes a desirable hormonal balance for athletes and might attenuate the physiological deterioration that accompanies overtraining and/or overstretching.
Phosphorus – A mineral vital to energy production; helps build bone and form cell membranes and genetic material.
A niacin-bound derivative of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (it’s also spelled pikamilon). Picamilon has been extensively investigated in Russia. It may increase cerebral blood flow and induces a state of relaxation, without drowsiness
Potassium – A mineral that serves as an electrolyte and is involved in the balance of fluid within the body. Our bodies contain more than twice as much potassium as sodium (typically nine ounces versus four ounces). About 98 percent of total body potassium is inside our cells. Potassium is the principal cation (positive ion) of the fluid within cells. Potassium is important in controlling the activity of the heart, muscles, nervous system and just about every cell in the body. Potassium regulates the water balance and acid-base balance in the blood and tissues. Evidence is showing that potassium is also involved in bone calcification. Potassium is a co-factor in many reactions, especially those involving energy production and muscle building.
Protease is a very important enzyme to digestion as it breaks down the protein foods to liberate the amino acids needed by the body.
Protein – The building blocks of the body. Composed of amino acids, which are vital to the body’s growth and function. Supplies valuable enzymes that regulate bodily functions. Key to muscle building and development.
A flavonoid found in a variety of foods, such as buckwheat, apples, citrus fruits and tea. Quercetin is an antioxidant, and may have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity. Quercetin is sometimes added to bodybuilding supplements, as it may inhibit certain enzymes responsible for metabolizing testosterone and other drugs/nutraceuticals (cytochrome P-450).
Chemical name(s): 3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone; 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-chromen-4-one
Phenolic compound from red raspberries used as a fragrance and/or food flavoring. Raspberry ketone is also added to certain fat loss supplements due to evidence that suggests it has anti-obesity effects.
Also known as alpha-yohimbine. It is an isomer of yohimbine.
RDI – Recommended Dietary Intake. Estimates of daily minimal dietary intake of established nutrients provided by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council. Optimal levels have not been formally established.
This Russian herb, also known as golden root, was one of the best kept secrets in the dietary supplement world. This herb falls into the category of adaptogens, compounds which allow your body to adapt to stress. This herb has been shown to significantly allow for improvements in athletic performance. The majority of research performed on rhodiola rosea has been geared towards improving physical and mental performance. Rhodiola rosea has been shown to delay fatigue and improve energy utilization during exercise. Muscle proteins and glutamic acid levels have been shown to be enhanced when supplementing with this extraordinary supplement. It has even been linked to increased creatine phosphate and ATP (energy) levels. All of this leads scientists to believe that this supplement may increase strength and lean body mass. Researchers speculate that rodiola rosea helps reduce the stress that occurs secondary to exercise by stimulating the parasympathetic nervous system which causes relaxation (as opposed to the sympathetic nervous system which causes stimulation). The results of 35 years of intensive clinical studies on Rhodiola Rosea performed at leading Soviet and Scandinavian clinics including the prestigious Institute of Medical and Biological Problems at the Russian Federation Ministry of Health show that this nutrient can help increase protein synthesis, remove ammonia from the blood and have a detoxifying effect, increase blood supply to the muscles and the brain, and improve athletic performance.
Ribose or D-Ribose
Ribose is a naturally occurring sugar made in the body from glucose and is an essential component of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the compound that stores and delivers energy in all cells. Ribose also occurs in RNA (ribonucleic acid), one of the main information-carriers of living organisms. Because ATP is rapidly used by muscles in high-intensity workouts and because RNA is important in protein synthesis, ribose supplements and energy drinks containing ribose are being promoted for energy enhancement and better exercise performance. The supplements are said to speed muscle tissue recovery after exercise, and limit post-exercise fatigue.
Saw palmetto berry – An herb (Sarena Serrulata). Saw Palmetto is a small palm tree with red berries which were used by Native American Indians to ease certain ailments. The red berries contain high concentrations of plant sterols, including B-sistosterol, which act as anti-inflammatory agents. In addition, the berries provide a variety of fatty acids and phytosterols which inhibit the action of dihydrotestosterone, the compound thought to be responsible for the enlargement of the prostate.
Selenium – Mineral acting as an antioxidant; needed for proper immune and heart functions.
Silk Amino Acids are a sequence of the following amino acids.
34 percent alanine
27 percent glycine
10 percent serine
3 percent valine
2 percent threonine
This herb has been used to support liver function and help with detoxification. The active ingredient seems to be Silybin. It can help with liver damage associated with alcohol consumption, acetaminophen intake, and environmental factors. Having a healthy and optimal functioning liver can also allow for other supplements you take to work more effectively as most supplements are processed in the liver. Milk thistle is usually standardized for 80% silymarin and a dose of 200-300 two times daily can be beneficial.
Sodium – Helps regulate blood pressure and water balance in the body.
Synephrine (Citrus Aurantium, Bitter Orange)
Citrus Aurantium (bitter orange or zhi shi) is an herb that contains the active ingredient synephrine (it also contains other potent compounds like octopamine and tyramine). This is touted as an ephedra alternative. It is ephedrine’s calmer chemical cousin which means it still has beta agonistic (thermogenic/fat burning) effects while being less stimulating to the central nervous system. Similar doses as compared to ephedrine may be effective (20 mg of active synephrine after standardization per serving). There is definitely more research on ephedrine and caffeine combinations for fat loss but one good study published in the Current Therapeutic Research journal in 1999 showed that a combination of citrus aurantium extract, caffeine and St John’s Wort caused significant body fat loss in overweight healthy adults. (synephrine was the key here). Other research has looked at the thermogenic properties of compounds found in citrus aurantium including synephrine and the results are very promising.
St. Johns wort – An herb (Hypericum perforatum). St. John’s Wort is an aromatic perennial herb which has been used for centuries for a wide variety of conditions. The plant’s active compound, hypericin, has anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. Hypericin has also been shown to have monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibiting activity, mimicking the action of antidepressant agents.
Also known as 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid. A non-protein, sulfur-containing amino acid with a variety of important physiological functions. Taurine is used in the formation of bile salts (which facilitate fat digestion/absorption); and is needed for osmoregulation, proper cardiac function and neurological development. Taurine is also abundant in skeletal muscle and has antioxidant activity.
Testosterone – A naturally occurring androgenic hormone.
Tetradecylthioacetic Acid (TTA)
A sulfur-substituted fatty acid analog with hypolipidemic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. TTA is an activator of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, and increases mitochondrial beta-oxidation (the process of oxidizing fatty acids for energy). Not coincidentally, TTA is used as an ingredient in various weight loss supplements.
Also known as dimethylxanthine. Theophylline is a metabolite of caffeine that’s also found naturally in tea. Although it’s less well-known or used in supplements, theophylline – which is used therapeutically as a bronchodilator – has effects on thermogenesis and exercise performance similar to caffeine
Tonalin (conjugated linoleic acid) – An essential fatty acid shown to reduce body fat and increase muscle tone.
This herb used in Ayurvedic medicine that’s also known as puncture vine, has been shown to boost testosterone levels naturally through a unique mechanism. Basically, it stimulates leutinizing hormone (LH) production from the anterior pituitary gland, which in turn stimulates testosterone production. Some clinical studies have shown that tribulus can enhance LH and free testosterone levels in healthy subjects by 70 and 40 percent, respectively. A Bulgarian study revealed that more than 200 men suffering from impotence—which is often caused by low testosterone levels—showed improved testosterone and LH levels as well as sperm production after the subjects supplemented with a preparation of tribulus terrestris. The research also shows it to be very safe. The LD50, a measure of an ingredient’s lethal toxicity, for tribulus in rats was more than 10 grams per kilogram of bodyweight, which is an incredibly high dose. The active compounds of tribulus terrestris that may be responsible for its anabolic and aphrodisiac properties are the furostanol saponins, including protodioscin.
Trimethyl Glycine (TMG)
Also known as Betaine Anhydrous.
It is a natural nutrient that promotes hydration and performance, especially related to physical activity. More recently, betaine has been the subject of a range of studies indicating health and performance benefits. These human trials demonstrate a significant improvement in physical performance, especially in strength, power and endurance.
Tyrosine – A nonessential amino acid but may be essential for individuals with certain diseases or nutritional concerns. May be important for neurotransmitter synthesis and mood regulation. May be useful for depression, allergies and addictive states.
Also known as Stinging Nettle. Urtica dioica has been used as a folk medicine for centuries. Stinging nettle extracts are also used as an alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, or enlarged prostate).
Cell culture experiments have shown that Urtica extracts can inhibit the binding activity of SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin). SHBG binds to testosterone, and high levels limit the amount of free testosterone able to interact with the appropriate receptors.
Uva ursi (Arctostaphylos uva ursi or “bearberry”) is a shrub used in alternative medicine to treat urinary tract infections and cystitis (bladder inflammation). Uva ursi is often added to weight loss and “detox” supplements, due to the herb’s diuretic and anti-bacterial effects
Valerian Root Extract
A medicinal plant (Valeriana officinalis) used to relieve anxiety and promote sleep. Valerian is sold as a standalone supplement, as well as in combination with other herbs such as hops.
Vanadyl sulfate – Trace mineral which works like insulin to increase the amount of glucose and amino acids driven into the muscle.
An alkaloid derived from periwinkle that affects cerebral blood flow, memory and learning. Vinpocetine is often added to pre-workout, stimulant blends designed to improve focus, concentration and training drive
Vitamin A – Fat-soluble vitamin that promotes good vision; helps form and maintain healthy skin, teeth and skeletal and soft tissue; possibly increases resistance to infection.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) – Essential in metabolism; help cells convert carbohydrates into energy; necessary for healthy brain and nerve cells and heart function.
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) – Helps release energy from carbohydrates; interacts with other B vitamins and is essential for growth and for the production of red blood cells.
Vitamin B6 – Vital in the utilization of protein; helps with the formation of red blood cells and plays a role in synthesizing antibodies in the immune system.
Vitamin B12 – Important for metabolism regulation and red blood cell production; helps maintain a healthy central nervous system.
Vitamin C – Antioxidant that performs a variety of roles in the body, helping to promote healthy gums and teeth, aids in mineral absorption, helps heal wounds. May provide a variety of other health benefits.
Vitamin D – Promotes absorption of calcium and helps maintain proper blood levels of calcium and phosphorus.
Vitamin E – Antioxidant that protects tissues from oxidation damage; helps in the formation of red blood cells and in the utilization of vitamin K.
Vitamin K – Vital to blood clotting; may help maintain strong bones with aging.
Wheat Grass is a rich nutritional food and contains a high amount of chlorophyll which revitalizes body metabolism, replenishes red blood cells, and cleanses the body.
Also known as xanthinol niacinate and Complamin (commercial formulation). Xanthinol nicotinate is a combination of xanthinol (a derivative of theophylline) and the B-vitamin niacin. It’s considered to be a “smart drug” or nootropic, due to its ability to improve memory and microcirculation. Flushing can occur with higher doses, although this reaction does not occur as frequently as it does w/niacin, its parent compound.
The bark of Pausinystalia yohimbe, a tree indigenous to Western Africa. The active ingredient in yohimbe is the alkaloid yohimbine. Yohimbe bark extracts are often added to fat loss supplements and/or “male” enhancement supplements.
Zinc – Mineral important to the activity of enzymes needed for cell division and repair. Aids in proper functioning of the immune system.
A combination of vitamin B6, zinc monomethionine aspartate and magnesium aspartate marketed as a testosterone booster. ZMA initially took the bodybuilding world by storm on the strength of a study showing increased testosterone and IGF-1 levels in collegiate football players.
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